Nigerian Tax administration is vested in the three tiers of government. Taxes payable to the Federal Government are administered by the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), while those payable to the State Governments are administered by the State Boards of Internal Revenue (SBIRs) of the thirty- six states of the Federation. Local Governments also administer rates and levies collectible by them through their various councils.
There are a good number of taxes payable by persons doing business in Nigeria. These include companies’ income tax, personal income tax, capital gains tax, value-added tax, education tax, technology tax, stamp duties, and withholding tax. Penalties are imposed for failure to pay taxes when due.
Below are Taxes applicable in Nigeria:
|APPLICABLE TAX||TAX RATE||GOVERNING LEGISLATION|
|Companies Income Tax (CIT)||30 % of total profits of a company less allowable deductions||Companies Income Tax Act|
|Capital Gains Tax (CGT)||10% of gains realized upon disposal of a chargeable asset||Capital Gains Tax Act|
|Value Added Tax (VAT)||5% on the supply of goods and services||Value Added Tax Act|
|Education Tax||2% of assessable proﬁts of a company||Education Tax Act|
Personal Income Tax
|CHARGEABLE INCOME||TAX RATES
|First N 300,000.00||7 %|
|Next N 500,000.00||15 %|
|Next N 500,000.00||19 %|
|Next N 1,600,000.00||21 %|
|Above N 3,200,000.00||24 %|
Stamp duty is a tax on documents, which is payable by virtue of the Stamp Duties Act, (Chapter S8), LFN 2004 (the “Stamp Duties Act”). The rate of stamp duties depends on the type of document and the value of the transaction evidenced by such a document. When a document is executed between a company and an individual, the stamp duty is payable to the Federal Inland Revenue Service, whereas, where the document is executed solely by individuals, the State Board of Internal Revenue is the appropriate collecting authority. Some examples of stamp duty levies are as follows:
|Taxable Item||Rate of Tax|
|Lease Agreements||16 kobo for every N 200 (0.08 %)|
|Incorporation of Limited Liability Company||0.75% of authorized share capital|
|Mortgages||75 kobo for every N 200 (0.375%)|
Nigeria’s tax laws provide for the withholding of tax from payments due to any person or company (whether or not resident in Nigeria) that provides goods or services to another person or company in Nigeria. Withholding tax is not a separate category of tax but simply represents an advance payment of income tax. See HERE for more on WHT.
Customs and Excise Duty
The Customs and Excise Management Act (“CEMA”) Chapter C44 LFN 2004 imposes customs duty on speciﬁed imported goods and empowers the Customs and Excise Management Authority to restrict the movement of goods into and out of Nigeria. Any company operating in Nigeria is liable under CEMA to pay customs duty on all goods which it imports into Nigeria for its operations, for hiring or for sale. The rates range from 5% to 30%, depending on the goods imported.
Information Technology Development Levy
The National Information Technology Development Agency (“NITDA”) Act, 2007 imposes on telecommunication companies, cyber companies and internet service providers, pensions managers, banks, insurance companies and other financial institutions, which have an annual turnover of N100,000,000 (One Hundred Million Naira) and above, a levy amounting to 1% of their proﬁts before tax. The NITDA Act also empowers the Federal Inland Revenue Service (the “FIRS”) to assess and collect the levy and where a company fails to pay the levy within 60 days of the being served with notice of an assessment, a penalty of 2% will be added to the levy. In addition, failure to pay the levy will attract a ﬁne of not less than N1, 000,000 (One Million Naira) on conviction.
Although not taxes in the proper sense, below are certain categories of mandatory contributions that would apply to a corporate employer/investor, if it were to set up a local entity in Nigeria.
a. Pension Contributions: The Pension Reform Act 2014 (“PRA”) introduced a pension scheme whereby both employer and employee are required to make a minimum of 10% and 8 % respectively of the employee’s monthly emoluments to a Pension Fund Administrator as a contribution towards the employee’s pension upon retirement. Emoluments include all items that are paid on a monthly basis (in addition to basic, housing and transport). The scheme is compulsory for all private sector employers that employ ﬁfteen or more employees. The Act stipulates that where an employer chooses to bear full responsibility, the rate of employer’s contribution is a minimum of twenty percent.
b. Employees Compensation Deductions: The Employees Compensation Act 2010 (the “ECA”), which was signed into law on 17th December, 2010, imposes an obligation on employers in both the private and public sector to deduct 1% from the monthly salary of their employees, and remit the deduction to an Employees Compensation Fund, established under the ECA for the compensation of any death, injury, disease and disability of an employee arising out of or in the course of employment. The ECA gives the Nigeria Social Insurance Trust Fund Management Board (the “NSITF Board”) the power to implement the fund.
c. National Housing Fund Deductions: The National Housing Fund Act (Chapter N45), LFN 2004 requires an employer to deduct an amount equal to 2.5% (two and half percent) of the monthly salary of any employee whose annual salary is up to three thousand Naira (N3, 000) and to remit the amount deducted to the National Housing Fund as the employee’s contribution to the National Housing Fund. The Act makes it an oﬀence for an employer to fail to remit the appropriate amount as prescribed. It is also an oﬀence not to comply with the Act and an employer will be liable upon conviction to pay a ﬁne of ﬁfty thousand Naira (N50, 000).
d. Industrial Training Fund Deductions: Every Nigerian company that employs ﬁve or more employees or, having less than ﬁve employees but with a turnover of N50 million and above per annum, is required by the Industrial Training Fund (Amendment) Act, 2011, to contribute 1% of its total annual payroll to the Industrial Training Fund not later than 1st April of every year. Section 16 of the Act deﬁnes “Payroll” to mean the sum total of all basic pay allowances and other entitlements payable within and outside Nigeria to any employee in an establishment, public or private.
Land Use Charge
Land Use Charge is payable on real property (residential and commercial) in Lagos State. The Land Use Charge Law of Lagos State 2018 consolidates all property and land-based rates/charges payable in Lagos State (i.e. the Land Rate, Tenement Rate, and the Neighborhood Improvement Charge) into a single property charge. Public cemeteries; private and public libraries; and properties owned by religious bodies and used as a place of worship or for religious education are properties exempt from the payment of Land Use Charge.
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